I have to say I'm sorry, but a lot of my recipes wouldn't have any weight/volume measures. It is because I'm used to cooking by eye and taste.
First part for every Russian soup is broth.
This part will be repeated in all soup recipes. Broth for them is made from a mix of meat and bones in whatever proportion you want. After boiling it is strained - although it is often replaced with simply ladling foam out. Then broth is salted and left to simmer for two hours.
There is another fast way. If you are short on time you can cut meat into small cubes and make broth from them, skipping simmering part.
Meat and bones are left in broth and served with it.
I'll start with basic potatoes soup.
There are many other soups that are made by adding one or two ingredients to it.
Make broth. As it finishes simmering, cut potatoes into thin pieces about 1 inch width, 2 inches height. Drop them into pot. Put heat up until it is boiling, then drop it to simmering again.
Take two middle-sized carrots and cut them slightly smaller than potatoes. Add them to soup.
Cut one middle-sized onion rather small. Grate one carrot on a small grate. Saute them in melted butter, until onions are golden. When they are done (or when potatoes are half-cooked - whatever will happen last) add them into pot. Add a couple bay leaves. Let it simmer until potatoes are done.
When serving, add some cut dill, leek or green onion, parsley.
Altering to make other soups.
1) You can add some peas to make pea soup. If peas are fresh, you add them about 5-10 minutes before potatoes. If they are dried, you soak them in water until they are soft and add them 15-20 minutes before potatoes.
2) Noodles. This recipe was born when I ran out of potatoes. When potatoes are half-done, add some short noodles.
3) Beans. They can be used the same way as peas. But more often we use them to make broth, and then cook it an regular potatoes soup.
4) Dried (or fresh) mushrooms. Dried mushrooms are soaked, fresh are just cut. Both can be used either for making broth, or added to meat broth before potatoes.
In the last two variations, skip carrots completely.